Preparing for vector-borne virus outbreaks (NWO Programme)
The Netherlands, with its dense population of humans and livestock, international transport and travel hubs, and water-dominated landscape is particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. The One Health Consortium aims to understand if and how changes in climate, farming, water management and travel lead to mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, to be better prepared.
Infectious disease outbreaks are increasingly common due to multiple, interacting global changes and developments in the human, animal or environment domains (Figure 1).
These changes can trigger processes that disturb the fragile balance in the complex human-animal-environment ecosystem, up to the point where the conditions are created for (new) infectious disease outbreaks, in animals and/or humans. In these situations, the state of the system has reached a pathogen-specific vulnerability threshold ( ‘tipping point’), making the system receptive to outbreaks of that pathogen if it is introduced. The Netherlands, with its dense population of humans and food animals, international transport and travel hubs (Schiphol, Rotterdam), and unique water-dominated landscape is particularly vulnerable to the occurrence of such tipping points and hence, outbreaks of (newly emerging) infectious diseases. In this project we will consider four change scenarios that could lead to the occurrence of such tipping points and disease emergence:
- changes in the climate,
- changes in water management,
- changes in agricultural methods, and
- changes concerning international travel and import risks.
Despite this expected vulnerability, emerging disease outbreaks in the Netherlands are still relatively rare. We currently study these outbreaks – when they occur – reactively, individually and within relatively isolated silos (e.g., human vs animal vs ecological health, academic research vs public health research, public vs private sector). This ad-hoc, reactive and fragmented approach is ineffective and inefficient. Instead, the partners collaborating in this project will adopt a pro-active, integrated, multisectoral, One Health approach in studying emerging infectious disease outbreaks.
We will develop and implement a forward-looking integrated research agenda, measuring and modelling how projected demographic, climatological, ecological, and planological changes will impact the risk of emergence of infectious diseases in the Netherlands, and translate this understanding into effective, integrated outbreak preparedness and response actions.
Focus on vector-borne diseases
To prevent spreading our efforts and resources too thinly, we will focus our research agenda on a specific category of infectious diseases, namely vector-borne diseases (VBD), which are particularly relevant to the Netherlands, due to its water-dominated ecosystems and abundant wildlife as potential amplifying hosts. VBD are infectious diseases that are transmitted through arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes). They have been expanding massively in (sub)tropical regions of the world through trade and habitat changes2.
Scientific and societal breakthroughs we aim to achieve
Our ambition is to prepare for VBD outbreaks in a rapidly changing environment. The One Health Consortium will do this by
- providing pathogen specific and generic early warning indicators that measure whether our human-livestock-wildlife ecosystem is (becoming) vulnerable for VBD outbreaks,
- developing novel catch all tools for outbreak detection and risk assessment,
- translating the knowledge into interventions based on in depth knowledge of the entire ecosystem and interactions in which such outbreaks may occur.
Our approach consists of four complementary, interacting pillars (figure 2). The One Health Consortium will gain a deep understanding of suitability of ecosystems in the Netherlands for VBD introduction, circulation, and expansion, and – conversely – the actionable factors that determine ecosystem resilience.
Erasmus MC – Viroscience
Utrecht University – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Wageningen University & Research
Leiden University Medical Center
Radboud University Medical Center
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
University Medical Centre Utrecht
Centre for Infectious Disease Control (RIVM)
Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI)
Red Cross Blood bank Foundation, Curacao
Sanquin, Department of Blood-borne infections
Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Vectors
International collaborating partner
CEAB-CSIC: Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB), a research institute within the Superior Council of Scientific Investigations (CSIC)